Anxiety Uncertainty Management Theory and the Problem canada goose outlet of Cross
cheap canada goose uk AbstractThis article discusses the problem of communication and cross cultural communication within global organizations by examining anxiety/uncertainty management theory (AUM). In the age of globalization the workplace is becoming increasingly cross culturally integrated making understanding and expertise in cross cultural communication more crucial for executives, business leaders, workplace managers, and standard employees and volunteers. In light of this expanding reality, this article examines anxiety uncertainty management theory as it relates to cross cultural communications by looking at concepts related to AUM theory including anxiety, uncertainty, mindfulness, and the development of trust. It is suggested that through the understanding of AUM theory, leadership practitioners discover that being consciously aware to learn the ways and practices of members from other cultural backgrounds works to alleviate anxiety and uncertainty, cultivate trust, and foster more effective cross cultural communication within the ranks of their respective organizations. cheap canada goose uk
1. More specifically, communication is a process that involves a sender, a receiver Canada Goose Parka and a message whereby a person or group (the sender) canadian goose jacket attempts to convey information (the message) to another person or group (the receiver) through both verbal and nonverbal cues (Harris, Moran, Moran, 2004; Klopf, 1991).
Given this general definition of communication, what does communication within organizations compare to or what does it look like? As a process of conveying or transmitting information from one person to another, buy canada goose jacket communication within an organization looks and acts like the nervous system within a human body (Landes, 2001; Coggins, 2010). messages of the brain do not reach other parts of the body), then the related parts of the human body Canada Goose Outlet will canada goose store fail to coordinate and the body will malfunction. Similarly, when communication failures occur within an organization, individuals or divisions within the organization will fail to coordinate and the organization (or at least the involved individuals and divisions) will malfunction (Landes). Thus, the general function of communication within organizations is to coordinate without fail activities of member individuals and groups in order to fulfill the vision and objectives of the organization. This general function of communication relates to organizations comprised of members from homogeneous cultures and those comprised of members from varying cultures.
canada goose clearance sale The communication endeavor within organizations became more complex with the increase of globalization in the late 20th and early 21st century that brought about a globally interdependent economy and the integration of multi ethnic and cross cultural workforces. According to Harris et al (2004) leadership practitioners who worked in intercultural situations “found many challenges working in a foreign environment” including increased canada goose clearance difficulty communicating across cultural boundaries due to differences in customs, behavior norms, and values (p. 36). Furthermore, Harris et al. reported that “personnel files of multinational corporations and government agencies were found replete with Canada Goose online documentation of intercultural communication misunderstandings [due to] ineffective communication and a misreading of verbal and nonverbal communication factors” (p. 36). At least, some communication problems experienced within organizations working cross culturally can be explained through the examination of. canada goose clearance sale
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Canada Goose online According to Stephen, Stephen, and Gudykunst (1999) (AUM) was designed to explain effective interpersonal and intergroup buy canada goose jacket cheap communication. individuals communicate effectively to the extent that they are able to manage their anxiety and uncertainty by accurately predicting and explaining the attitudes, feelings, and behaviors of others. As suggested by the name, AUM theory breaks down into three concepts or constructs (a) anxiety, (b) uncertainty, and (c) management of anxiety and uncertainty through mindfulness and development of trust. Canada Goose online
Canada Goose Outlet In the AUM theory, anxiety refers to the feelings of being uneasy, tense, worried, and apprehensive about what might happen (Gudykunst Kim, 2003). designate ingroups and outgroups (Walbott Scherer, 1986; Greenland Brown, 1999; Gudykunst Kim, 2003). Gudykunst (1993) observed that each human being has a maximum and minimum threshold for anxiety and that effective communication with strangers occurs when a person’s anxiety level remains somewhere between their maximum and minimum thresholds. Hubbert, Gudykunst, and Guerrero (1999) found that generally, as a person gets to know a stranger, the anxiety level experienced in interacting with strangers tends to go down. Canada Goose Outlet
In the AUM theory, uncertainty refers to the confidence a person has in his or her own ability to predict the attitudes, feelings, and behaviors of cheap Canada Goose others. In the context of an organization or leader operating in an intercultural setting, uncertainty is a cognitive action that influences what a person or group from one particular cultural background thinks about another person or group from another cultural background (Stephen, Stephen, Gudykunst, 1999). Berger and Calabrese (1975) identified two types of uncertainty (a) predictive uncertainty which refers to the uncertainty people have about predicting others’ attitudes, feelings, values, and behaviors and (b) explanatory uncertainty which refers to the uncertainty people have about explaining others’ attitudes, feelings, and behaviors. As in the canadagooseparka/a> case of levels of anxiety, each person experiences maximum and minimum thresholds for uncertainty whereby effective communication with a stranger from another culture tends to occur when a person operates in the middle of those thresholds. Likewise, as a person gets to know and understand a stranger canada goose coats on sale and or their culture, his or her level of uncertainty tends to decrease. How then does a person successfully manage his her levels of anxiety and uncertainty while communicating with strangers in a cross cultural setting?
canada goose uk shop Gudykunst and Kim (2003) argued that to manage anxiety and uncertainty, one must be conscious (or mindful) of his canada goose deals or her communication, but also observed that generally most individuals do not think much about personal behaviors including communication behaviors. In many cases, individuals and groups tend to communicate out of habit according to the underlying norms and values handed down by canada goose coats members of their home culture or group. values and attributes in communication) involved in the communication process whose values and attributes are determined and instilled by culture (Harris, Moran, Moran, 2004). Through their observations, Gudykunst and Kim saw “encoding and decoding of communication to be an interactive process influenced by conceptual filters, which they categorized into (a) cultural, (b) sociocultural, (c) psychocultural, and (d) environmental factors.” In other words, they saw the communication process as a pattern of behaviors which involves every aspect of a person’s being. Once a person learns the communication process of his or her home culture or group, he or she generally mimics that communication process without conscious effort. Thus, Gudykunst and Kim (2003) as well as Stephen, Stephen, and Gudykunst (1999) posited mindfulness (or the act of being consciously aware) as a pre requisite for effective communication with a person or group from a different culture. the behavior of a person from another culture with dissimilar communication practices, he or she consciously seeks cues to guide their behavior (Stephen et al). Furthermore, Langer (1989) discovered three primary characteristics involved in mindfulness including (a) creating new categories; (b) being open to new information; and (c) awareness of more than one perspective. canada goose uk shop
canada goose uk outlet As applied to leadership in intercultural settings, effective global leadership means making a conscious effort (or being mindful) to learn and understand the varying cultural backgrounds of the stakeholders involved with a respective organization as well as learning how to manage uncertainty and anxiety experienced by members within the ranks of the organization (Harris, Moran, Moran, 2004; Gudykunst Kim, 2003). Beyond mindfulness, Gudykunst Kim suggest that managing the anxiety and uncertainty that arises when interacting with strangers is closely related with canada goose clearance sale developing trust. canada goose uk outlet
uk canada goose outlet Developing Trust One Key to Anxiety/Uncertainty Management uk canada goose outlet
buy canada goose jacket According to Govindarajan Gupta (2001) the key to successful multinational teams is to cultivate a deep sense of trust among the members involved. Trust is a level of confidence among people which rests in mutual goodwill (Rajagopal Rajagopal, 2006, p. 245) Often trust is compromised due to hindrances in communication exacerbated by geographical, linguistic, and cultural barriers (Govindarajan Gupta). When trust is damaged, community within the organization as a whole suffers and dealing with any matter, business, social or persona becomes a difficult task (Rajagopal Rajagopal). Two ways global leadership practitioners can establish overcome heightened anxiety and uncertainty levels within their multi ethnic members and establish trust are to (a) overcome communication barriers and (b) engage members of the organization in directed conversations with one another. buy canada goose jacket
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uk canada goose First, to stimulate deeper trust leaders in cross cultural organizations should work to alleviate levels of anxiety and uncertainty by overcoming communication barriers. In order to overcome communication barriers, Govindarajan Gupta (2001) set forth the following ideas: uk canada goose
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4. Develop alternatives to enrich debate in order to give everyone involved an opportunity to speak to a given issue.
5. Rotate meeting locations between the headquarters of the various team factions (allowing each group to enjoy a home court advantage from time to time).
6. Rotate and diffuse team leadership to display trust in the abilities of others from canada goose the other cultures.
canada goose uk black friday 7. And, build social capital by encouraging interpersonal activities to enhance familiarity amongst the members in the group canada goose uk black friday.